Chennai Information

History

Chennai also known as Madras is the capital of the Indian State of Tamil Nadu. Located on the Coromandel Coast off the Bay of Bengal, it is the biggest cultural, economic and educational centre of south India. According to the 2011 Indian census, it is the sixth-most populous city and fourth-most populous urban agglomeration in India.

As per worldpopulationreview.com  Chennai has an estimated population of 4.9 million, with an area that has grown from 176 square kilometers to 426 square kilometers after a 2011 expansion. The urban agglomeration, which includes the city and suburbs, has a population estimated at 9 million. This makes it the 4th most populous metropolitan area in India and the 31st largest urban area in the world. Chennai is by far the most densely populated city in Tamil Nadu, with a density of 26,553 people per square kilometers, very far ahead of the next city, Kanyakumari with 1,111 people per square kilometer.

The Chennai Metropolitan Area is one of the largest municipal economies of India. Chennai is nicknamed “The Detroit of India”,with more than one-third of India’s automobile industry being based in the city. Home to the Tamil film industry, Chennai is also known as a major film production centre. Chennai is one of the 100 Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under the Smart Cities Mission.

According to some sources, Madras was derived from Madraspattinam, a fishing-village north of Fort St George.  In 1996, the Government of Tamil Nadu officially changed name from Madras to Chennai. However, the name Madras continues in occasional use for the city.

Climate

Chennai has a tropical wet and dry climate. The city lies on the thermal equator and is also on the coast, which prevents extreme variation in seasonal temperature. The hottest part of the year is late May to early June, known regionally as Agni Nakshatram (“fire star”) or as Kathiri Veyyil, with maximum temperatures around 35–40 °C (95–104 °F). The coolest part of the year is January, with minimum temperatures around 19–25 °C (66–77 °F). 

Tourism and Hospitality

With temples, beaches and centres of historical and cultural significance, including the UNESCO Heritage Site of Mahabalipuram, Chennai is one of the most-visited cities in India. The city serves as the gateway to the southern part of India with tourists landing in the city and then visiting the rest of the region. Chennai was the most-visited Indian city by foreign tourists in 2009 and issued the third-highest number of visas on arrival in 2014. In 2011, Chennai was ranked the 41st-most visited city, with 3,174,500 tourists, a 14 percent increase from 2010. About 830,620 domestic tourists arrived in Chennai in March 2011. 

Timeline

20th Century and Onwards

1901: The city, covering an area of about 70 sq km, has a population of 540,000.
1914: Water mains and drainage are formed. Street lights are introduced. Emden bombardment—German fighter vessel Emden bombarded the sea shore and disappeared during the First World War.
1917: First aeroplane flies; Simpson & Co. arranges for the trial flight.
1924: Radio broadcasting begins (31 July).
1925: First bus transport begins.
1930: First broadcasting station is founded at Ripon Buildings complex.
1931: Suburban electric train services start (from Chennai Beach to Tambaram).
1934: Raja Sir Muthiah Chettiyar is appointed first mayor of the city.
1938: All India Radio is formed and broadcasting from Ripon Buildings ceases.
1943: Japanese fighter plane drops bombs on city and disappears.
1947: Indian national flag is hoisted over Fort. St. George. Madras city chose capital of Madras state
1952: Nehru Stadium is built. Integral Coach Factory starts functioning.
1953: Government Dental College is founded (10 August).
1956: Madras city is made the capital of Tamil Nadu state.
1969: Madras State was renamed Tamil Nadu.
1974: Madras Television Centre is founded.
1976: New (present) lighthouse is built.
1983: Zoo is shifted to Vandalur.
2002: Intercity bus terminus at George Town gets shifted to Chennai Mofussil Bus Terminus (CMBT) at Koyambedu (18 November).
2004: Indian Ocean Tsunami wreaks havoc in the city, killing about 206 persons (26 December).
2015: The Chennai Metro starts functioning.
The 2015 South Indian floods cause the deaths of hundreds of people and damages worth several billions of dollars.

19th Century

1819: Madras Eye Infirmary, later the Egmore Eye Hospital, is established.
1831: First Commercial Bank, Madras Bank, is founded.
1835: First medical college is founded; later becomes Madras Christian College.
1841: Ice House is built, where ice brought from America through ships is stored; later gets renamed as Vivekananda House.
1842: First lighthouse is built.
1844: Higginbotham's, the first book store in the country, is opened.
1846: Pachaiappan School is founded; later becomes Pachaiappa's College.
1851: Museum is formed.
1853: Zoo is formed.
1854: Imperial Hotel is opened, which later becomes the Taj Connemara, the oldest functioning hotel in the city.
1856: First Railway line from Royapuram to Arcot is built.
1857: University of Madras is founded.
1878: The Hindu newspaper is founded.
1882: First telephone is installed.
1886: Connemara Public Library is founded.
1889: High Court Building foundation is laid.
1893: San Thome Church is rebuilt in neo-Gothic style.
1894: First car is sold; A. J. Boag, Parry & Co, drives the car on city roads.
1895: First tram car service is inaugurated.
1899: First Tamil newspaper, Swadesamitran, is founded.

18th Century

1701: Emperor Aurangazeb's general Daud Khan attacks Fort St. George. However, the British manage to hold the Fort.
1751: East India Company acquires Tondiarpet.
1721: Cyclone strikes (13 and 14 November).
1735: Chintadripet is formed.
1744: Robert Clive, who later goes on to become the hero of the Carnatic, works as a writer at Fort St. George.
1746: The French Admiral La Bourdonnais capture Fort St George.
1749: The French return Madras to the English through the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748).
1767: Hyder Ali invades the city for the first time.
1768: Chepauk Palace is built by Nawab of Arcot.
1769: Hyder Ali invades the city for the second time.
1772: General Hospital at Fort St. George moves to its present location.
1783: Fort St. George is repaired and attains the present shape.
1784: The first newspaper, Madras Courier, is founded.
1785: First post office starts functioning.
1788: Thomas Parry lands in Madras and begins the oldest surviving mercantile name in the city—Parry's

17th Ecntury

1639: British establish the city of Madras
1612: Dutch arrive and capture it from the Portuguese

Before 17th Century

1522: Portuguese arrive and built a port and the Santhome Church.

Chennai Info

Population (2019) : 10,000,000 plus
Sex Ratio in Chennai: 986 females per 1,000 males
Religion: Hindus, Christians, Muslims
Languages: Tamil is the main language. English is used for business purpose. Telugu, Malayalam, Hindi
STD Code: 044
ISD Code: +91

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